Practical Applications of Time-Lapse (4D) Seismic Data

Available as a public course

This two-day course is to provide an overview of the fundamentals of 4D seismic technology, starting from its role in field lifecycle planning and then through seismic acquisition, processing, and analysis.

However, a primary focus of the course is interpretation and data integration. Case study examples will be used to demonstrate key concepts and will be drawn upon to demonstrate the range of interpretation methods currently employed by the industry and the diversity of geological settings and production scenarios where 4D is making a difference.

Full Course Outline

Practical Applications of Time-Lapse (4D) Seismic DataIntroduction to 4D seismic technology 

  • Reservoir management concepts and the incentives for seismic reservoir monitoring
  • Key 4D concepts, technical issues, success factors 
  • Role of 4D in field lifecycle planning

Reservoir Engineering fundamentals 

  • Reservoir depletion mechanisms influence fluid and pressure distributions 
  • How 4D seismic might be used to monitor the above 
  • Hydrocarbon fluid systems and conventional reservoir surveillance tools are also discussed 

The petrophysical basis for 4D

  • Rock physics link between the geological and engineering properties of a reservoir and the elastic properties is essential to 4D interpretation 
  • Review of the acoustic properties of fluids and how seismic velocities and density depend on rock properties, stress, temperature, and fluid saturation



4D seismic modeling and feasibility studies 
  • The here and when can 4D seismic methods be successfully applied 
  • Time lapse seismic modeling is taken from simple spreadsheet approaches to well-log fluid substitution and then to seismic models derived from reservoir flow simulation 
  • Approaches to estimate the business impact of 4D data are also discussed.

Seismic acquisition and repeatability

  • Reliability of 4D seismic data is determined in large part by the similarity of repeated seismic surveys
  • Measures of repeatability and causes of non-repeatability are discussed along with strategies for acquiring repeatable seismic data in both marine and land settings 

4D seismic processing, data analysis and QC

  • Objectives of 4D processing are to maximize repeatability, preserve and resolve differences associated with production, and retain true relative amplitudes
  • Critical factors in 4D processing are discussed along with cross-equalization and data QC methodologies


Interpretation and data integration

  • What time-lapse seismic attributes are most effective for interpretation?
  • How is production data used to validate 4D interpretation?
  • When can map-based or volume-based interpretation methods be used?
  • How can 4D inversion add value?
  • How can 4D data be used to update geological and reservoir flow simulation models
  • What are the pitfalls in 4D interpretation?
  • These issues and others will be discussed in the context of case studies that demonstrate 4D seismic application for water and gas sweep, pressure depletion and compaction, steam and CO2 floods, and CO2 sequestration.

The future for geophysical monitoring

  • Other geophysical methods such as gravity and microseismic monitoring are seeing increased application within the industry.
  • 4D seismic technology is moving from qualitative interpretation to quantitative analysis, enabled in part by the development of permanent monitoring systems and the instrumented oil field.

Have you been on an Ikon Science training course? How did it help you?

Please let us know....