Understanding the behavior of CO2 injected into a reservoir and delineating its spatial distribution are fundamentally important in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and CO2 capture and sequestration activities. Interdisciplinary geoscience collaboration and well-defined workflows, from data acquisition to reservoir simulation, are needed to effectively handle the challenges of EOR fields and envisioned future commercial-scale sites for planned and incidental geologic CO2 storage. The success of operations depends on decisions that are based on a good understanding of geologic formation heterogeneities and fluid and pressure movements in the reservoir over large areas over time. We present a series of workflow steps that optimize the use of available data to improve and integrate the interpretation of facies, injection, and production effects in an EOR application. First, we construct a simulation-to-seismic model supported by rock physics to model the seismic signal and signal quality needed for 4D monitoring of fluid and pressure changes. Then we use Bayesian techniques to invert the baseline and monitor seismic data sets for facies and impedances. To achieve a balance between a prior understanding of the reservoir and the recorded time-lapse seismic data, we invert the seismic data sets by using multiple approaches. We first invert the seismic data sets independently, exploring sensible parameter scenarios. With the resulting realizations, we develop a shared prior model to link the reservoir facies geometry between seismic vintages upon inversion. Then we utilize multirealization analysis methods to quantify the uncertainties of our predictions. Next, we show how data may be more deeply interrogated by using the facies inversion method to invert prestack seismic differences directly for production effects. Finally, we show and discuss the feedback loop for updating the static and dynamic reservoir simulation model to highlight the integration of geophysical and engineering data within a single model.
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