Seismic Reservoir Monitoring for Hydrocarbon Reservoirs and Carbon Storage

4 half-days - 27-30 September 2022, 2pm - 6pm BST [London] / 8am - 12pm CDT [Houston]
4 day virtual course: This course provides an overview of the fundamentals of 4D seismic technology. Starting with technology’s role in field lifecycle planning, then onto seismic acquisition, processing, and analysis. A primary focus of the course is interpretation and data integration.
Show Course Outline
Introduction to 4D seismic technology
  • Incentives for seismic reservoir monitoring
  • Key 4D concepts, technical issues, success factors
  • Role of 4D in field lifecycle planning
  • Field examples that demonstrate 4D application
Reservoir engineering fundamentals
  • Reservoir depletion mechanisms and how they influence fluid and pressure distributions
  • Displacement and sweep efficiency and how they relate to the 4D response
  • Hydrocarbon fluid phase behavior
  • Conventional reservoir surveillance tools and reservoir flow simulation
The petrophysical basis for 4D
  • Rock physics models that relate the geological and engineering properties of a reservoir to the elastic properties - essential to 4D interpretation
  • Acoustic properties of reservoir fluids
  • Seismic velocity and density variations dependent on rock properties, fluid saturation, stress, and temperature
4D seismic modeling
  • Time-lapse seismic modeling from simple spreadsheet approaches to well-log fluid substitution
  • Seismic models derived from reservoir flow simulation (sim-to-seis)
  • The use of models to determine where and when 4D seismic methods may be successfully applied
  • Approaches to estimate the value of information of 4D data
Seismic acquisition and repeatability
  • 4D seismic data reliability
  • Measures of repeatability and causes of non-repeatability
  • Strategies for acquiring repeatable seismic data in both marine and land settings, including permanent reservoir monitoring
4D seismic processing, data analysis and QC
  • Objectives of 4D processing and how they may differ from 3D processing objective
  • Basic 4D processing flows
  • Special issues associated with marine and land 4D processing
  • The role of cross-equalization for data QC and for generating 4D interpretation attributes
Qualitative 4D interpretation and data integration
  • Basic interpretation workflows
  • Interpreting simple amplitude differences and time shifts and pitfalls
  • Production data used to validate 4D interpretation
  • Model-based interpretation
  • Volume-based interpretation methods
Quantitative 4D interpretation and data integration
  • Estimating pressure and saturation change
  • Methods for 4D elastic inversion
  • Statistical methods and applications of machine learning
  • 4D interpretation over compacting reservoirs
  • Using 4D data to update geological and reservoir flow simulation models
  • Taking advantage of rapidly repeated seismic surveys
  • 4D in unconventional reservoirs
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