Practical Applications of Time-Lapse (4D) Seismic Data

Course Outline:

2 Day Course: This two-day course provides an overview of the fundamentals of 4D seismic technology. Starting with technology’s role in field lifecycle planning, then onto seismic acquisition, processing, and analysis. A primary focus of the course is interpretation and data integration.

Throughout the course, case studies are used to demonstrate 4D seismic application for water and gas sweep, pressure depletion and compaction, steam and CO2 floods, and CO2 sequestration. The lectures are supplemented by class exercises

 

Show Course Outline
Introduction to 4D seismic technology
  • Incentives for seismic reservoir monitoring
  • Key 4D concepts, technical issues, success factors
  • Role of 4D in field lifecycle planning
  • Field examples that demonstrate 4D application
Reservoir engineering fundamentals
  • Reservoir depletion mechanisms and how they influence fluid and pressure distributions
  • Displacement and sweep efficiency and how they relate to the 4D response
  • Hydrocarbon fluid phase behavior
  • Conventional reservoir surveillance tools and reservoir flow simulation
The petrophysical basis for 4D
  • Rock physics models that relate the geological and engineering properties of a reservoir to the elastic properties - essential to 4D interpretation
  • Acoustic properties of reservoir fluids
  • Seismic velocity and density variations dependent on rock properties, fluid saturation, stress, and temperature
4D seismic modeling
  • Time-lapse seismic modeling from simple spreadsheet approaches to well-log fluid substitution
  • Seismic models derived from reservoir flow simulation (sim-to-seis)
  • The use of models to determine where and when 4D seismic methods may be successfully applied
  • Approaches to estimate the value of information of 4D data
Seismic acquisition and repeatability
  • 4D seismic data reliability
  • Measures of repeatability and causes of non-repeatability
  • Strategies for acquiring repeatable seismic data in both marine and land settings, including permanent reservoir monitoring
4D seismic processing, data analysis and QC
  • Objectives of 4D processing and how they may differ from 3D processing objective
  • Basic 4D processing flows
  • Special issues associated with marine and land 4D processing
  • The role of cross-equalization for data QC and for generating 4D interpretation attributes
Qualitative 4D interpretation and data integration
  • Basic interpretation workflows
  • Interpreting simple amplitude differences and time shifts and pitfalls
  • Production data used to validate 4D interpretation
  • Model-based interpretation
  • Volume-based interpretation methods
Quantitative 4D interpretation and data integration
  • Estimating pressure and saturation change
  • Methods for 4D elastic inversion
  • Statistical methods and applications of machine learning
  • 4D interpretation over compacting reservoirs
  • Using 4D data to update geological and reservoir flow simulation models
  • Taking advantage of rapidly repeated seismic surveys
  • 4D in unconventional reservoirs
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Instructors for this Course

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