- Pressure Data, Pressure Gradients & Transition Zones
- Reservoir vs. Shale Pressure
- Overpressure Mechanisms
- Pore Pressure Prediction
- Vertical stress
Refinement of Existing Models
- Effective stress
- Compaction process
- Overlay methods, Athy (1930), Hubbert and Ruby (1953)
- Eaton Ratio Method and limitations
- Equivalent Depth Method and limitations
- Bowers Loading
Elastic & Inelastic Unloading processes
- Reactive Systems (Hot Shales)
- Elastic; “Fluid Expansion”
- Inelastic; “Framework collapse”
Comparison of Existing Methods
- An overview of several established pore pressure prediction equations
- What is a basin model?
- Why use basin modeling?
- Building the geological model
- Mechanisms, permeability etc.
Typical Problems in Pore Pressure Prediction & Their Solutions
- Soil mechanics approach to differing shale types
- Carbonates & Salt
- Uplift & Gas expansion
- Lateral drainage & Hydrodynamics
Lateral Transfer & The Centroid
- What is Lateral Transfer?
- Dynamic vs. Static models
- Case Study: Popeye-Genesis, GoM
- 1D vs 2D modeling for the effects, SE Asia & North Sea
Seismic Pore Pressure Prediction
- Why do we need seismic velocities?
- How do we obtain these velocities?
- How do we well-tie?
- Understanding when an offset well is an offset well
- Limitations of using seismic data
- Constraint results by simple geological models
Fluid Retention Depth
- Using a geologically driven method – the “Swarbrick Method”
Seal Breach & Trap Integrity
- Membrane vs. Mechanical leakage
- Shear vs. Tensile Failure
- Previous Studies – Risking Schemes
- Best-Practice Workflow
- Case Study – North Sea HP/HT trap